Stonehenge in the news this morning …..

This article is old, I’m trying to post brief news info when I see it, because it usually is gone as quickly as it comes……

Archaeologists Begin Dig at Stonehenge
Tuesday, April 01, 2008

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AP

March 31: Archaeology students Steve Bush, right, and Sam Ferguson, left, sieve through earth amongst the stones at Stonehenge, England.
March 31: Archaeology students Steve Bush, right, and Sam Ferguson, left, sieve through earth amongst the stones at Stonehenge, England.
LONDON — Some of England’s most sacred soil was disturbed Monday for the first time in more than four decades as archaeologists worked to solve the enduring riddle of Stonehenge: When and why was the prehistoric monument built?

The excavation project, set to last until April 11, is designed to unearth materials that can be used to establish a firm date for when the first mysterious set of bluestones was put in place at Stonehenge, one of Britain’s best known and least understood landmarks.

The World Heritage site, a favorite with visitors the world over, has become popular with Druids, neo-Pagans and New Agers who attach mystical significance to the strangely shaped circle of stones, but there remains great debate about the actual purpose of the structure.

• Click here to visit FOXNews.com’s Archaeology Center.

The dig will be led by Timothy Darvill, a leading Stonehenge scholar from Bournemouth University, and Geoffrey Wainwright, president of the Society of Antiquaries.

Both experts have worked to pinpoint the site in the Preseli Mountains in south Wales where the bluestones — the earliest of the large rocks erected at the site — came from.

They will be able to compare the samples found in Wales to those at Stonehenge on the Salisbury Plain.

“The excavation will date the arrival of the bluestones following their 153-mile journey from Preseli to Salisbury Plain and contribute to our definition of the society which undertook such an ambitious project,” Wainright said. “We will be able to say not only why, but when the first stone monument was built.”

Scientists believe the bluestones were first put in place about 2600 B.C., but they concede the date is only an approximation at best.

The original bluestones were removed about 200 years later and scientists hope to find bits of them embedded in the earth.

Darvill said the excavation marks the first opportunity to bring the power of modern scientific archaeology to bear on a problem that has taxed the minds of so many experts since medieval times: Why were the bluestones so important to have warranted bringing them from so far away?

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Photo EssaysStonehenge Excavation
The excavation goal is to find remnants of the original bluestones, or related materials, that can be subjected to modern radiocarbon dating techniques to establish a more precise timeline for the construction of Stonehenge, said Dave Batchelor, an archaeologist with English Heritage, which oversees the Stonehenge site.

“We have to find the material that will give us a good date,” he said. “That’s where the luck comes in. We could get an absolute blank or we could get something magnificent or we could get something in between.”

He said bluestones have an “inky, bluey, black” appearance and come from the Preseli Mountains in South Wales.

About 6 feet tall, they are the smaller stones that make up part of the monument, alongside the larger sarsen stones, which are about twice as tall and were added later.

It is hoped that fixing the date of the start of construction with more precision will allow scientists to finally grasp how and why the monument was built. They also may learn more about how the stones were transported.

Research shows the bluestones, weighing an estimated five tons apiece, may have been dragged from the mountains in south Wales to the sea, put on huge rafts and floated up the River Avon.

Archaeologists believe that before the bluestones were put in place, Stonehenge consisted of a circle of wooden posts and timbers built in approximately 3100 B.C.

The research that began Monday with the digging of a trench marks the first time ground inside the inner stone circle has been excavated since 1964.

The area, revered as a powerful link to England’s pagan past, is so sensitive that Cabinet approval was needed before the work could begin.

Renee Fok, a spokeswoman with English Heritage, said the project was okayed only after experts were convinced of its potential value. She said the project represents “the logical next step” after the two professors located the source of the bluestones in Wales.

“It’s the culmination of their work, it makes sense to go back to the stone circle and get a date,” she said.

“We want to strike a balance. We want the best research, but we can’t just say go ahead and dig as you like, it’s a very fragile area. Even the Druids are happy with this project, we’ve spoken to them and they don’t object.”

She said tourists will be able to visit Stonehenge as usual and will also be able to watch live video coverage of the excavation in special tents at the site.

Published in: on October 5, 2009 at 7:09 AM  Leave a Comment  

Critical Thinking Final

PART THREE OF EXAM
This part of the exam you will need to finish the sentence:

I will walk you through a couple and then I will send you the answers for the rest on the next e-mail.

1. All fragile things are breakable things.
Some glass are fragile things.
Therefore, __________________________________

OK, let’s walk through this. First, figure out what your MIDDLE TERM is…..the MIDDLE TERM, will repeat itself twice in the first and second line. What words repeat in line one and line two?
…… “fragile things”

So if we look at the first line, we now know that fragile things are not the MAJOR TERM….. so what is the MAJOR TERM? If it is not “fragile things” then it must be “breakable things.”

Rule: MAJOR TERM becomes the predicate in the last line!

So now we look at the Second line and we now know that “fragile things” is the Middle Term, so we have to figure out what is left to be the MINOR TERM….

Some glass are fragile things.

It must be “SOME GLASS” Minor Term

RULE: MINOR TERM is always the Subject of the LAST LINE
ANSWER:

Therefore, some glass are breakable things.

Now, this sentence means, the minor term is the subject, the major term is the predicate. Some is a universal statement so we make sure to use it again. The Minor goes first, the Major goes last. Make the sentence work using these rules….
Now try these examples….and even e-mail them back to me for the answers…I will send the answers out later….but try to finish the sentences without looking at your notes!
Class,
here are the answers I promised to the finish the sentence part III of the exam tomorrow!

1. No animals are plants.
All sheep are animals.
Therefore, all sheep are not plants. (or no sheep are plants)

2. All Greeks are mortal.
All Athenians are Greeks.
Therefore, all Athenians are mortal.

3. All Miracle Workers are praiseworthy.
Some saints are miracle workers.
Therefore, some saints are praiseworthy.

4. All books are things with pages.
Some books are mysteries.
Therefore, some mysteries are things with pages.

5. All trees have root systems.
All root systems need nitrogen.
Therefore, nitrogen is needed by all trees. (THE TEST)

6. Some hawks are sharp beaked animals.
All hawks are birds.
Therefore, all birds are beaked shaped animals.

7. All pigs are red things.
Red things are cute.
Therefore, all pigs are cute.

8. All trees are green things.
All pines are trees.
Therefore, all pines are green things.

9. All horses are quadrupeds.
Some horses are animals that run faster than humans.
Therefore, some animals that run faster than humans are quadrupeds.

10. All artists are creative people.
Some creative people are painters.
Therefore, some painters are artist.

11. All fragile things are breakable things.
Some glass are fragile things.
Therefore, some glass are breakable things.

Published in: on October 5, 2009 at 6:51 AM  Leave a Comment  

Skull & Bones

Everything you could want to know about the Yale secret society “Skull & Bones”, is right here in this article,            60 Minutes Report on Skull & Bones.

The read is easy, and you will be an expert. You could have been like I was, when the Presidential race was between Bush and Kerry. I was and secure in the knowledge that it didn’t matter which candidate won, because both were a member of Skull & Bones. Also the really interesting thing, John Kerry’s wife Teresa Heinz Kerry is the only woman I’ve ever heard of that was married to not 1 but 2 Skull & Bones members. That’s right, our Heinz Ketchup founder was also a Skull & Bones member. Now they only let in 15 people a year, so that only allows for 650 possible living members at any given time. That circle must be small, and then again, she’s pretty hot for that crowd. Anyway….dug this up for you:  Enjoy -

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Disengage

Let the initial shock of loss wear away
Feel the pain but don’t carry it all day.
Allow your mind to instruct
matter of all things -
Have faith in what
your thoughts will bring.

Remember 10% is only developed,
90% has its own agenda.
The powerful reptilian brain can be,
things that undermine reality.

Let go of things you can’t control,
Do not look to others
to make your life feel whole.

Do not share the fleeting moments in your brain.
Practice the silent way of the insane.

Do not fear the reaction to your action.
Do not assume they think like you…
Do not assume they feel like you….
Do not assume they love or care.
Rely on the fact that no one is really there.

Do not share your thoughts lightly,
Keep them locked and hidden.
Do not give away your ideas
or your mission.

If you think to ask
then ask yourself first.
Enjoy your answer
and that will quench your thirst.

Block the noise
Block the message
You are your own being….

Only you know…..

————-

nothing

I must post another day………….in another way…….

Hey you,

This was a lot of fun for me. I learned so much blogging for my first time and must admit was very therapeutic. I have to go now. I can’t spend the attention you deserve to continue to post things of which may have value. If I had enough time to spare, I would dedicate it here, but alas, it is impossible now. I could throw things up that were not given thought, but that would always nag at me as not being authentic. It just doesn’t feel right to play it half-ass.

I might keep this up for awhile, I might take it down, for now I’ll just sit on it and see what happens. Life changes quickly as you see……always mutuable and different to the observer.

Take Care……

Aiych

PS: I am actually sad…..you were my first

Published in: on September 27, 2009 at 10:08 AM  Leave a Comment  

Critical Thinking – Fallacy

Part 2 of EXAM:  

I’m highlighting things in Red that I am sure are on the FINAL EXAM.   FALLACY TO UNDERSTAND ON TEST:   (Read the instructions of the Final Exam carefully, it should provide this description so you do not have to memorize it!)  

AFFIRMING THE CONSEQUENT: An invalid form of the conditional argument. In this case, the second premise affirms the consequent of the first premise and the conclusion affirms the antecedent.  

DENYING THE ANTECEDENT: An invalid form of the conditional argument. In this one, the second premise denies the antecedent of the first premise, and the conclusion denies the consequent.  

In the Final Exam instructions, it will explain invalid and valid arguments.  Make yourself a Chart to refer to when solving your

HPOTHETICAL SYLLOGISMS:  

VALID_­___________________INVALID 

AA                                                                    DA

(affirm antecedent)                 (Denying the antecedent)  

DC                                                                      AC

(Denying the consequent)    (Affirming the consequent)    

Basic Pattern of Hypothetical Syllogisms  

If P, then Q    

If Q, then R

Therefore, if P, then R.  

*The “if” statement is called the antecedent. *The “then” statement is called the consequent.  

Patterns for Hypothetical Syllogisms *Affirming the Antecedent (Look at chart- a.k.a. AA)

If P, then Q.

P

Therefore, Q.

Example:  

If the stock market falls, then it will be a thin Christmas.

The stock market fell.

Therefore, it will be a thin Christmas.  

 Let’s walk through this.  

The antecedent (the “if” statement) is if the stock market falls. The consequent (the “then” statement) is it will be a thin Christmas.   So now we must figure out the Real Time Event.    The Real Time Event is that the stock market fell.   So what does that do?  The stock market fell agrees with the Antecedent (If the stock market falls).    You do not need to think about line 3….don’t even try to make sense of the argument by figuring in line 3….because line 3 does not matter!!!   This Example is VALID Because (look at the chart) it does the AA which means it AFIRMS THE ANTECEDENT.  

VALID_­___________________INVALID 

AA                                                                    DA

(affirm antecedent)                 (Denying the antecedent)  

DC                                                                      AC

(Denying the consequent)    (Affirming the consequent)    

Remember, it is not enough to know if a Hypothetical Argument is valid or invalid, you must also know HOW…..make a chart out of the EXAMS instructions that explain what is valid and how, what is not valid and how and use it through this segment! 

Here is the other Valid Pattern for a Hypothetical Syllogism argument is:   DENYING THE CONSEQUENT  

If P, then Q.

Not Q.

Therefore, Not P.  

EXAMPLE:  

If I am poor, then I am not happy.

I am happy.

Therefore, I am not poor.  

Let’s walk through this.   What is the Antecedent? It is “if I am poor.” What is the Consequent? It is “then I am not happy.”   What is the Real Time Event? The Real Time Event is: I am happy.   What does that do?  I am Happy is opposite of the “then I am not happy.” So what does that mean?  It means: We are: Denying the Consequent. REMEMBER DO NOT LOOK AT LINE 3, IT DOES NOT MATTER!!! Look at the chart.  Where does Denying the Consequent fall under?  

VALID_­___________________INVALID 

AA                                                                    DA

(affirm antecedent)                 (Denying the antecedent)  

DC                                                                      AC

(Denying the consequent)    (Affirming the consequent) 

This Hypothetical Syllogism is: VALID Because:  It falls under Denying the Consequent.  

Here is another pattern of a Hypothetical Syllogism:   *DENYING THE ANTECEDENT  

If P, then Q.

Not P.

Therefore, not Q.  

EXAMPLE:  

If the sun dies, the earth will become barren.

The sun did not die.

Therefore, the earth is not barren.

Let’s break it down.   What is the Antecedent? It is: If the sun dies. What is the Consequent? It is: the earth will become barren. What is the Real Time event?  It is: The sun did not die.   DO NOT LOOK AT LINE THREE….IT DOES NOT MATTER!   So if the sun did not die, what does that mean?  Look at the Antecedent.  It says “If the sun dies.”  But the real time event says the sun did not die…..what does that do? Look at the chart!  

VALID_­___________________INVALID 

AA                                                                    DA

(affirm antecedent)                 (Denying the antecedent)  

DC                                                                      AC

(Denying the consequent)    (Affirming the consequent) 

That is: Denying the Antecedent….. And that is INVALID, because it is in the INVALID instruction box.  When the antecedent is denied it is an invalid argument.  Remember you do not have to remember these rules, just take the instructions out of the EXAM explanation before the problems and make this chart.  When you break down the examples on the test, you can look at it to figure out what each example is doing. 

Always know:

The Antecedent is the IF statement.                          

The Consequent is the THEN statement.                         

The REAL TIME event does what?                          

Ignore the last line….it does not matter w/ Hypothetical Syllogisms!  

The Last Pattern:  

AFFIRMING THE CONSEQUENT  

If P, then Q.

Q.

Therefore, P.  

EXAMPLE:  

If I walk to the store, then I will be tired this evening.

I am tired this evening.

Therefore, I walked to the store.  

Let’s break it down.  

The Antecedent is: if I walk to the store. The Consequent is: then I will be tired this evening. The Real Time event is: I am tired this evening.   Ignore line 3.   I am tired this evening agrees with the Consequent, I will be tired this evening.   So what does that mean?  Look at the chart. 

VALID_­___________________INVALID 

AA                                                                    DA

(affirm antecedent)                 (Denying the antecedent)  

DC                                                                      AC

(Denying the consequent)    (Affirming the consequent) 

I am tired this evening affirms I will be tired this evening…. It is   INVALID   And it is Invalid because it is: Affirming the Consequent, which is found in the chart above!   Fredericka says:  Read Left to Right, Top to bottom, what happens in Real time?  Don’t try to agree or disagree with the argument, just see if it is a valid or invalid argument and know why.  Analyze and follow the flow of the argument.  It is important that you can break down the argument.   And I say….ignore the last line, it is not important to the pattern to figure out what is happening with a Hypothetical Syllogism problem only!  

EXAMPLE:  

If he wants to get that job,

then he must know Spanish.

He knows Spanish, so the job is his.  

What is the Antecedent:  if he wants to get that job. What is the Consequent: then he must know Spanish. What is the Real Time event: he knows Spanish. What do we ignore: so the job is his.   He knows Spanish agrees with the Consequent he must know Spanish. Look at the chart:  

VALID_­___________________INVALID 

AA                                                                    DA

(affirm antecedent)                 (Denying the antecedent)  

DC                                                                      AC

(Denying the consequent)    (Affirming the consequent) 

THIS EXAMPLE IS: 

INVALID BECAUSE: It is Affirming the Consequent!    

EXAMPLE:  

If she qualifies for a promotion, she must speak English.

She doesn’t qualify for the promotion,

so she must not know how to speak English.  

Let’s break it down.  

The Antecedent: if she qualifies for a promotion. The Consequent: “then” she must speak English. The Real Time Event: She doesn’t qualify for the promotion.   So the Real Time Event she doesn’t qualify for the promotion disagrees with the antecedent she qualifies for a promotion.    Look at the chart:  

VALID_­___________________INVALID 

AA                                                                    DA

(affirm antecedent)                 (Denying the antecedent)  

DC                                                                      AC

(Denying the consequent)    (Affirming the consequent) 

This is: Denying the Antecedent, therefore, it is an INVALID example.   EXAMPLE:  

Chris and Nick would be very happy if the Browns beat the Steelers.

The Browns did beat the Steelers,

so Chris and Nick are very happy indeed.

What is the Antecedent: if the Browns beat the Steelers. What is the Consequent: “then” Chris and Nick would be very happy. What is the Real Time Event: the Browns did beat the Steelers Ignore that Chris & Nick are indeed very happy, that does not matter.   The real time event of the Browns beating the Steelers agrees with the Antecedent if the Browns beat the Steelers.  This is a positive form.  Therefore, look at the Chart.  

VALID_­___________________INVALID 

AA                                                                    DA

(affirm antecedent)                 (Denying the antecedent)  

DC                                                                      AC

(Denying the consequent)    (Affirming the consequent) 

What is happening? It is Affirming the Antecedent…. Therefore this Example is   VALID  

EXAMPLE  

Roberto thought that if he worked very hard, his boss would give him a raise or a promotion.

He made sure she noticed him, but she did not give him a raise or promotion.

He thought he must not have worked hard enough.  

Let’s walk through it.   The IF statement (Antecedent): if he worked very hard The THEN statement (Consequent): his boss would give him a raise or promotion.   Ignore all extra information and look for the REAL TIME EVENT: She did not give him a raise or promotion.   She did not give him a raise or promotion IS NEGATIVE to his boss would give him a raise or promotion.   Look at the chart:  

VALID_­___________________INVALID 

AA                                                                    DA

(affirm antecedent)                 (Denying the antecedent)  

DC                                                                      AC

(Denying the consequent)    (Affirming the consequent) 

 This real time event is Denying the Then event the Consequent:   Therefore this argument is:   VALID  

ANSWER THESE BY CIRCLING VALID OR INVALID/ MAKE A REASON WHY FROM THE CHART (I will send answers later)  

  1. Madeline must have known the material for the test, because if a person knows the material, that person will get an A, and Madeline was one of the students that got an A.

  VALID  OR   INVALID WHY:_________________

  1. “I’m still eating too much ice cream,” lamented George. “My waist measurement is the same as it was six months ago. I know if I didn’t eat so much ice cream, I would reduce my waist size.”

  VALID   OR   INVALID  WHY: ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­____________  

  1. The best way to make sure we pay fewer taxes is to elect conservatives. We must not have elected enough conservatives, because we are paying more taxes.

  VALID   OR   INVALID    WHY: _____________  

  1. If my neighbor were a decent human being, he wouldn’t let his yard trash fall onto my property. But he’s not a decent human being, so we get to clean his trash as well as ours.

    VALID   OR   INVALID    WHY: _____________

  1. Anastasia believes that if she treats people honestly and with an open mind, she will have diverse friendships.  She is honest and open-minded and has friends all over the world.

  VALID  OR   INVALID     WHY: ___________________  

  1. If I could understand the concept of hypothetical syllogisms, I would get a passing grade. Hurray! I got a passing grade, so I must have understood the concept of hypothetical syllogisms.

  VALID   OR   INVALID     WHY: _____________  

If I turn 40, I will go to Asia

I turned 40. Therefore,

I went to Asia.  

VALID   OR   INVALID     WHY: ________ 

If I turn 40, I will go to Asia.

I died at 39.

Therefore, my mom went to Asia.  

VALID   OR   INVALID     WHY: _______________ 

If I study hard, I will pass the exam.

I did not pass the exam.

Therefore, I did not study hard.  

VALID   OR   INVALID     WHY: ______________ 

If I study hard, I will pass the exam.

I passed the exam.

Therefore, I studied hard.  

VALID   OR   INVALID     WHY: __________  

  1. If he turns 40, he will go to Europe.

He turned 40, and went to Europe.   VALID   OR   INVALID     WHY: ______________________________  

  1. If the Braves win the World Series, I will win $1000.00.

The Braves were shut-out. I did no win the money.   VALID   OR   INVALID     WHY: ______________________________

Published in: on September 25, 2009 at 10:39 PM  Leave a Comment  

Critical Thinking – Categorical Syllogisms

E Mail #1

Hello Class,

I am sending everyone 4 e-mails. I am breaking them up so I don’t jumble a lot of information together. I want to help you study by breaking down the Exam. If anything I write seems incorrect, please let’s discuss it. I am giving you notes based on HOW I UNDERSTAND. I want to help, but I don’t want to confuse anyone, so if this helps you great. If it confuses you, study your own way, but make sure you study for this exam! I think the most important trick is to understand the Patterns. Once I saw the Patterns emerge today, everything seemed a little easier to do. I couldn’t understand any of this material until today. It really drove me crazy and made me anxious and depressed…so if I can overcome that, I think we all can!

If you have e-mails of anyone who missed todays class, I would forward them all of the 4 emails I am sending you, so they have the benefit of knowing what was discussed in the class today. Please pass this information along!

Class Four Recap

We found out the whole class, every team, failed the take home fallacy worksheet. She gave us the time to re-do the test, and earn 4 points (if we got all the fallacies correct this time). Anyone who wasn’t in class will have an opportunity to do the same thing on their take home test, in order to earn 75% on that take home test. I can discuss the take home test with anyone who needs to take it on the Fifth Class.

The class mainly missed these fallacies:

Appeal to Authority

Contrary to the Fact

False Dilemma

Hasty Generalization

False Analogy

Post hoc ergo propter hoc

Non-sequitur

Contrary to the Fact

We all did OK on Appeal to Ignorance (Ad ignorantium), Two Wrongs, Attacking the Person, Slippery slope, Appeal to Emotion,

Equivocation was the fallacy that was not used!

Anyone who missed class today will have a chance to earn up to 4 points only by getting all of the answers correct. I have just provided you all of the hints provided us in class. If anyone who wasn’t in class needs to discuss this, e-mail me to set up a time to call each other and we will talk about it over the phone.

If you earn all 4 points, it will only bring your grade on the Fallacy take home test up to a 75%

ABOUT THE EXAM

I’m highlighting things in Black that I am sure are on the FINAL EXAM.

The final exam is 25 questions, broken up into 3 segments.

1. Categorical Syllogisms

2. Hypothetical Syllogisms

3. Finish the sentence syllogism…..(categorical)

Here are some rules:

1. All valid syllogisms must have one affirmative premise.

2. Syllogisms are only valid if the conclusion has to be true based on the premise.

3. All valid syllogisms must have one universal premise-(ALL) Example: All people are homo-sapiens.

Deductive Reasoning: You have a Known set of facts. Truth. Validity-refers to structure (Do the premises prove the conclusion) Soundness & Acceptability.

CLASS,
I don’t know how soon I will send out the next two e-mails, it is going to take me some time to re-write my notes in an instructional manner. 
 
I do not know the order of the exam….but for purposes of breaking the 3 different subjects apart, I am calling this Part 1.
 
I’m highlighting things in Red that I am sure are on the FINAL EXAM.
 
Part 1 of EXAM:
From Chapter 9 pages 137-138 show other patterns that show up.
Categorical Syllogisms:
A categorical syllogism is a form of argument that contains statements) called categorical propositions) that either affirm or deny that a subject is a member of a certain class (category) or has a certain property.”
Determine valid or invalid-
 
Here is ONE basic pattern of a Categorical Syllogism: this will appear at least one time on the test in some way (either in pattern or direct example, I don’t know).
All X’s are Y’s
Z is an X
Therefore, Z is a Y
 
LEARN THE PATTERN
Pattern of Categorical Syllogisms
  1. Major Term: (This is usually found in the first line of the Categorical Syllogism, on the right hand side.) e.g. Our students are intelligent.  (MAJOR TERM)
  2. Find out what the MIDDLE TERM is. The middle term will duplicate itself in line ONE and line TWO.  Once you know what the Middle Term is, you can logically deduct what the major term is in the first line, and what the minor term is in the second line! e.g. Robert is one of our students.
 
Our students are intelligent.
Robert is one of our students.
 
*NOW WE KNOW STUDENTS IS THE MIDDLE TERM, SO THEREFORE WILL NOT BE IN THE CONCLUSION.
*The MAJOR TERM in line one has to be intelligent (found on the right of line one)
*The MINOR TERM always on line TWO is not students (Middle Term) so it must be Robert.
*The conclusion now must read with the
RULE
 
MINOR becomes the SUBJECT in the CONCLUSION.
MAJOR becomes the PREDICATE in the CONCLUSION.
 
EXAMPLE: Therefore, Robert (MINOR TERM NOW SUBJECT) is intelligent. (MAJOR TERM NOW THE PREDICATE)
 
ON THE TEST
            No geese are felines.
            Some birds are geese.
            Therefore, some birds are not felines.
 
Now break the syllogism down.
 
LINE ONE: Since Geese is repeated in line one and line two, it must be the Middle Term.  So in line one the Major term is: Felines.
 
LINE TWO: Some birds are geese.  Geese is the middle term (appears in line one) so SOME BIRDS, must be the Minor Term: Some birds.
 
LINE THREE: To be VALID, it must have the Minor term as the Subject and the Major term as the predicate. Also watch the ALL & SOME!
 
Therefore, (minor term) some birds are NOT (to relate to the universal term in line one NO GEESE) felines (MAJOR TERM).
THIS EXAMPLE THEREFORE IS VALID
UNIVERSAL STATEMENTS IS ON THE TEST.  There has to be at least One universal statement seen when words like ALL OR NONE  is in the syllogism.
 
ON THE TEST
 
All zebras are striped animals.
No zebras are polar bears.
Therefore, no polar bears are striped animals.
 
Let’s walk through this:
The Middle term is Zebra’s but the universal term says ALL in the first line and NO in the second line!
The Major term is striped animals in line one because zebras is middle term.
The minor term is polar bears in line two because zebras is the middle term.
 
The conclusion must be written with the Minor term as the SUBJECT and the Major Term on the PREDICATE.
 
Therefore, (minor term) no polar bears are striped animals (major term).
So the problem is the universal statements are not matching up….. since NO goes with the minor term and ALL is in the major term, NO & ALL are opposite of each other, they are Negative, they do not match up….
THIS SYLLOGISM IS INVALID
 
EXAMPLE:
 
All clowns are funny individuals.
Some sad people are clowns.
Therefore, some sad people are funny individuals.
 
Let’s walk through this:
1.  CLOWNS repeats itself in line one and line two so it can not be in the conclusion, we know this is the MIDDLE TERM.
2.  In line one the MAJOR TERM must be FUNNY INDIVIDUALS.
3.  In the second line the MINOR TERM must be sad people.
So the last line must have the MINOR TERM as the SUBJECT, and the MAJOR TERM as the predicate, and watch the UNIVERSAL STATEMENTS ALL & SOME.
 
Therefore, some sad people (minor term) are funny individuals (major term.)
 
Look at it:  The minor term is the subject and in the right place, and the word SOME coincides with SOME in line two.  The Universal statements match.
THIS SYLLOGISM IS VALID
 
EXAMPLE:
Some sticky substances are yucky things.
All taffy is a sticky substance.
Therefore, some taffy is a yucky thing.               
 
Let’s walk through it:
MIDDLE TERM is sticky substance because it appears in line one and line two.  So therefore it can not appear in line 3.
Line one’s MAJOR TERM then must be yucky things.
Line two’s MINOR TERM then is taffy.
 
NOTICE: Universal statement ALL in line two.
Now:
Therefore, some taffy (MINOR TERM) is a yucky thing (MAJOR TERM).
The minor term is in the right place and the major term is in the right thing, BUT the Universal Statement doesn’t match.  In line two it says: ALL TAFFY, so when it says SOME TAFFY it doesn’t match! 
 
Therefore: INVALID
 
EXAMPLE
 
All items made of gold are expensive items.
Some rings are items made of gold.
Therefore, some rings are expensive items.
 
Let’s walk through it:
The MIDDLE TERM that appears in line one and line two is made of gold.
In Line One the Major term can be found on the right: expensive items.
In Line Two the Middle term must be: some rings.
 
Therefore, some rings (middle term becomes the subject) are expensive items (major term became the predicate). The UNIVERSAL TERM SOME matches. 
 
Therefore, some rings are expensive items.  THIS IS VALID!
 
Now, without any notes print out this portion and practice if these are valid or invalid by yourself! Circle one and go back over the answers above when you are done!  Practice, Practice, Practice!
 
All X’s are Y’s
Z is an X
Therefore, Z is a Y
 
VALID  OR   INVALID  
————————————–
Our students are intelligent.
Robert is one of our students.
Therefore, Robert is intelligent.
 
VALID OR INVALID
————————————-
 
No geese are felines.
Some birds are geese.
Therefore, some birds are not felines.
 
VALID OR INVALID
————————————
 
All zebras are striped animals.
No zebras are polar bears.
Therefore, no polar bears are striped animals.
 
VALID OR INVALID
———————————-
 
All clowns are funny individuals.
Some sad people are clowns.
Therefore, some sad people are funny individuals.
 
VALID OR INVALID
———————————-
 
Some sticky substances are yucky things.
All taffy is a sticky substance.
Therefore, some taffy is a yucky thing.               
 
VALID OR INVALID
———————————-
 
All items made of gold are expensive items.
Some rings are items made of gold.
Therefore, some rings are expensive items.
 
VALID OR INVALID
 
 
CLASS, IF YOU DON’T GET THESE RIGHT, KEEP PRACTICING UNTIL YOU ARE ONE HUNDRED PERCENT!
 

If I were an avatar – I would be TOPH!

If I were an Avatar – I figured out who I would be – I would be

TOPH!!!!!!

TOPH’S BREAKING THE HABIT TONIGHT

A special thanks to

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toph

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0

Toph is a blind Earthbending master of the Earth Kingdom, a race of people who can control and manipulate earth.,She grew up in a wealthy and highly respected family but left it behind when she had agreed to teach Aang earthbending to help him fulfill his duty as the Avatar, and accompanies him on his quest to defeat the imperialistic Fire Nation and bring peace to the war-torn nations.

225px-BeiFongEstate_HiRes

Toph is a blind Earthbending master of the Earth Kingdom, a race of people who can control and manipulate earth. She grew up in a wealthy and highly respected family but left it behind when she had agreed to teach Aang earthbending to help him fulfill his duty as the Avatar, and accompanies him on his quest to defeat the imperialistic Fire Nation and bring peace to the war-torn nations.

Despite her handicap, Toph has developed special skills that make her a very formidable Earthbender. Once, when she was very young, Toph ran away from home, seeking refuge in nearby caves. It was there she found companionship with the blind, earthbending Badgermoles that inhabited the caves. By imitating their movements, Toph came to harness her own earthbending abilities, becoming a master in her own right. However, she kept her talent secret from her family and Master Yu, her earthbending teacher. Toph fought frequently in Earth Rumble, an underground earthbending Lei tai tournament, under the alias “The Blind Bandit”. By the time Aang and his friends discover Toph at the tournament, she had won her way to become the current champion, holding a 42-0 win-loss record prior to her encounter with Aang.

In order to escape entirely from her parents’ control, Toph fled secretly with Aang and his friends and volunteered herself as Aang’s Earthbending instructor. Early on, Toph’s defiance of authority and lack of cooperation annoyed Katara. The two eventually put aside their differences and became close friends.

The Bei Fong family appears to be well-known and influential in the Earth Kingdom. In the episode “The Serpent’s Pass”, Toph’s mere display of her family’s seal was sufficient enough to gain passage on a Ba Sing Se-bound ferry, despite lacking proper documentation to obtain a ticket normally.

In search of an earthbending teacher who “waits and listens”, the group arrives in the town of Gaoling and eventually come across the town’s underground earthbending tournament, Earth Rumble VI. After watching Toph’s performance and recalling the vision he experienced in the swamp, Aang believes she is the requisite person. When Xin Fu, the tournament host, calls for volunteer challengers, Aang takes up the offer for a chance to speak to her. Thanks to his airbending in conjunction with her inability to see what is not on the ground, Aang easily defeats Toph and upsets her winning streak. She, however, does not give him a chance to speak and immediately leaves the arena in a huff.

 20080729003848!Toph_ep26

Aang later finds Toph at the Bei Fong estate, and he is eventually able to talk to her about his quest and need for an earthbending teacher. Before Toph can make a decision, she and Aang are kidnapped by the earthbending tournament staff, who believe that Toph lost intentionally because they failed to see anything hit her.

The tournament wrestlers demand a ransom, which Katara, Sokka, Master Yu, and Toph’s father (voiced by Cam Clarke) pay, but only Toph is released. The competitors announce that they will be handing Aang to the Fire Nation for the reward instead, prompting Katara to plead Toph for her help in rescuing Aang. Her father interjects, claiming that his daughter is blind, tiny, helpless, and fragile, and unable to help them. Slighted, Toph steps forward and single-handedly defeats the entire tournament staff and the host, Xin Fu. Master Yu is speechless and awed by Toph’s amazing earthbending skill. Her father is silent.

That night, Toph tries to reason with her parents that she is skillful at fighting and enjoys it, and that she should be allowed to live a normal life. She hopes that all of this new information does not change the way they feel about her. Toph’s father replies that it does not change his love for her as a father, but it instead has made him realize that he has allowed her too much freedom. He plans to have guards watching over her all day long. Toph’s protests are unheard.

Outside town, just as Aang and his friends are about to depart, Toph appears and claims that her father had changed his mind, saying that she was free to travel the world. Upon hearing this testimony, the group is swift to depart, sailing into the night sky with a new member and earthbending teacher. With his daughter’s sudden absence, Toph’s father concludes that the Avatar has kidnapped his daughter and issues a large reward to Master Yu and Xin Fu to bring her back by any means necessary. While traveling with the Avatar, Toph’s social attitudes change considerably. She becomes much less snide and private, but nonetheless still retains her cocky attitude. Her bending abilities also improve throughout Book Two, as she has learned to bend metal using her special ability to “see” the impurities (small fragments of earth) in the metal.

Toph joins Sokka and Suki in the series finale to hijack a Fire Nation airship to attempt to prevent the “burning of the old world”. While commandeering an airship she uses Metalbending almost as proficiently as Earthbending. The three succeed in stopping the airship brigade, giving Aang the time he needed to defeat Phoenix King Ozai and to save the world. Toph’s last appearance is complimenting Sokka’s poorly drawn painting of the group by saying “they all look perfect”, again pointing out that she cannot see it, and makes everyone laugh except Sokka. It is unknown whether she returned to her parents after the battle ended.

In search of an earthbending teacher who “waits and listens”, the group arrives in the town of Gaoling and eventually come across the town’s underground earthbending tournament, Earth Rumble VI. After watching Toph’s performance and recalling the vision he experienced in the swamp, Aang believes she is the requisite person.[3] When Xin Fu, the tournament host, calls for volunteer challengers, Aang takes up the offer for a chance to speak to her. Thanks to his airbending in conjunction with her inability to see what is not on the ground, Aang easily defeats Toph and upsets her winning streak. She, however, does not give him a chance to speak and immediately leaves the arena in a huff.

Aang later finds Toph at the Bei Fong estate, and he is eventually able to talk to her about his quest and need for an earthbending teacher. Before Toph can make a decision, she and Aang are kidnapped by the earthbending tournament staff, who believe that Toph lost intentionally because they failed to see anything hit her.

The tournament wrestlers demand a ransom, which Katara, Sokka, Master Yu, and Toph’s father (voiced by Cam Clarke) pay, but only Toph is released. The competitors announce that they will be handing Aang to the Fire Nation for the reward instead, prompting Katara to plead Toph for her help in rescuing Aang. Her father interjects, claiming that his daughter is blind, tiny, helpless, and fragile, and unable to help them. Slighted, Toph steps forward and single-handedly defeats the entire tournament staff and the host, Xin Fu. Master Yu is speechless and awed by Toph’s amazing earthbending skill. Her father is silent.

That night, Toph tries to reason with her parents that she is skillful at fighting and enjoys it, and that she should be allowed to live a normal life. She hopes that all of this new information does not change the way they feel about her. Toph’s father replies that it does not change his love for her as a father, but it instead has made him realize that he has allowed her too much freedom. He plans to have guards watching over her all day long. Toph’s protests are unheard.

Outside town, just as Aang and his friends are about to depart, Toph appears and claims that her father had changed his mind, saying that she was free to travel the world. Upon hearing this testimony, the group is swift to depart, sailing into the night sky with a new member and earthbending teacher. With his daughter’s sudden absence, Toph’s father concludes that the Avatar has kidnapped his daughter and issues a large reward to Master Yu and Xin Fu to bring her back by any means necessary. While traveling with the Avatar, Toph’s social attitudes change considerably. She becomes much less snide and private, but nonetheless still retains her cocky attitude. Her bending abilities also improve throughout Book Two, as she has learned to bend metal using her special ability to “see” the impurities (small fragments of earth) in the metal.

Toph joins Sokka and Suki in the series finale to hijack a Fire Nation airship to attempt to prevent the “burning of the old world”. While commandeering an airship she uses Metalbending almost as proficiently as Earthbending. The three succeed in stopping the airship brigade, giving Aang the time he needed to defeat Phoenix King Ozai and to save the world. Toph’s last appearance is complimenting Sokka’s poorly drawn painting of the group by saying “they all look perfect”, again pointing out that she cannot see it, and makes everyone laugh except Sokka. It is unknown whether she returned to her parents after the battle ended.

250px-Tingling_Toph_Senses

While the Earthbending style used by most Earthbenders is rooted in the Hung Gar style of Kung Fu, Toph’s style is uniquely based on Chu Gar Southern Praying Mantis Kung Fu. Though blind, Toph has the unique ability to use Earthbending to “feel” even the most minute vibrations in the earth, be it the presence of trees and buildings or the march of ants several meters away. Through this heightened seismic sense, she can visualize where people are, their relative distance to her, and their physical build. This sense provides her with a distinct advantage when facing other Earthbenders in combat, as they characteristically require contact with the ground and extract rocks from their surroundings. As another result of her blindness, Toph has acquired an acute sense of hearing, enabling her to recognize people by the sound of their voices and hone in on distant conversations. Most significantly, Toph retains the ability to sense when a person is lying based on his or her heartbeat and breathing patterns.

230px-Toph_ep26

Unfortunately, due to her dependency on vibrations in the earth, Toph is left considerably vulnerable to attacks initiated in midair or opponents who require little constant contact with the ground, such as Aang. Terrain that impairs Toph’s ability to sense vibrations also hinders her abilities; she has some difficulty with sand, which constantly shifts and lacks solidity, preventing her from accurately “feeling” her surroundings. Since Toph needs her feet to “feel” the earth in order to perform Earthbending, she becomes truly “blind” if her feet (specifically, the soles of her feet) are badly damaged, as shown when Zuko accidentally burned her feet. As further illustrations of her affinity with the earth, Toph does not know how to swim and expresses an aversion to flying as well as travelling underwater in a submarine.

As of the end of Book Two, Toph is the only known Earthbender with the ability to bend metal. When Toph is seen concentrating in her iron prison, the sadhu known as Guru Pathik explains to Aang in a parallel scene that metal is refined Earth. As a result of her ability to feel the vibrations in earth, Toph is able to locate the impurities (the small fragments of earth) and manipulate them to “bend” the metal portion. Later on, Sokka gives Toph a small piece of meteorite, which she can easily mold into myriad shapes.

Toph is shown to be a very skilled Earthbender at the end of the series. She and Aang are the only two Earthbenders known to use the Badgermoles’ Earthsight ability. Toph also becomes proficient in Sandbending, even making an incredibly detailed sand sculpture of Ba Sing Se.

ALL HAIL WIKIPEDIA …… I TRUST IT MORE OFTEN THAN I DON’T……

Published in: on September 23, 2009 at 4:54 PM  Leave a Comment  
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E-Mails between Crop Circle Connectors

NOVEMBER 16, 2001 – I receive this e-mail

Greetings, Aiych -

i’m Peter’s Platonic Circle-buddy … ;-)
and as i used to live in Port Angeles, my ears perked up when you
mentioned in yr post to him that there was a Formation there ‘recently’ …

do you have any additional info, any newspaper clippings/fotos/referrals
to anyone who you know visited the Formation? can you tell me precisely
where the Circle was?

now, in Chehalis in ’94 and ’96 there were Formations (wch i documented
aerially and with wheat samples), and there were two in Adna (near
Chehalis) in ’94 both of wch i worked with Dr Gerald Hawkins on the math
– ’94AdnaI was the first US Formation with confirmed diatonic ratio;
and of course in ’93 the Kennewick Formation (wch i aerially documented
and sampled for Dr L) started everything off, was the first Pictogram
the States had received (to the best i’ve been able to confirm); and ’98
Eltopia (wch i aerially and lay documented) and WhidbeyIsle (wch i tried
to find but was directed instead to lodged fields) each received one.
but i left PortAngeles area and haven’t heard about any WA or OR
Formations this year.

if you can share whatever info you may have with me, i’d be most appreciative!

TIA,

- ilyes


“One who knows the secret of Sound knows the Mystery of
the Universe.” — Hazrat Inayat Khan

- ilyes
National Coordinator
CropCircle Research International

>visit my HomePage – and my Monograph,
“The Transmission of a CropCircle”

http://www.cropcircleconnector.com/ilyes/ilyes.html

explore The CropCircle Connector’s International Archives:
http://www.cropcircleconnector.com -> HomePage
http://www.cropcircleconnector.com/1999/1999.html -> ’99 Circles

NOVEMBER 16, 2001 -
I send a news link article from King 5 news that is no longer available for link but this is the text.

Strange formations in the fields
10/03/2001

Reported by John Stofflet, Evening Magazine

A strange formation appeared overnight in a Northwest field. No one has been able to explain how the huge patterns appeared. Some say it’s the work of extraterrestrials or a spiritual power. Others say it’s another chapter in the hoax story of the century.

A Port Angeles woman is devoting much of her life investigating these strange formations here in the Northwest and around the world.

For more than a decade, people around the world have been fascinated by reports of thousands of crop circle formations that have appeared in farm fields everywhere from England to right here in the Northwest.

While some formations are believed to have been made by people, in many cases scientists have been unable to explain what’s created them.

A Northwest woman who is devoting much of her life to crop circle research says there is more and more evidence these formations have been sent from a power or entity yet unknown.

Ilyes of Port Angeles, is the national coordinator of the Center for Crop Circle Studies in the U.S. She’s spent years researching these bizarre formations that seem to appear out of nowhere overnight.

Ilyes has been interested in crop circles since 1985, and has been traveling to England since 1991 to study them.

Some scientists believe the formations are the result of a simple, but unexplained natural phenomenon. Other people believe extraterrestrial beings are involved.

Ilyes has her own theory. She feels ancient spiritual energies are the source of the circles.

“I believe that these circle makers are separate consciousnesses that have come together over eons and eons and eons. Very loving, a very high order intelligence,” she said.

Ilyes and thousands of others, believe the formations may convey important messages and a positive energy.

Skeptics say that’s new-age hogwash. They say the real circle makers are human pranksters.

Ilyes says her visits to the formations have led her to evidence that could prove these formations are not human made. Nodes in the wheat appear to have been blown out by a powerful force – not something she believes is caused by trampling of human feet.

Ilyes says researchers have been monitoring the fields, watching for people making the formations and have caught no one. Nor, she says, can any one explain how a person would have the time to intricately weave the wheat together the way it is often found.

Skeptics continue to insist publicity-seeking pranksters, or people interested in boosting tourism are making the circles. Ilyes says her purpose is not to prove them wrong but to simply offer what she believes to be the truth.

She says the sense of peace and the positive energy she and many others experience when they enter a crop formation is reason enough to continue to dedicate her life to the formations – reason to believe something powerful is growing from these fields.

While some people have admitted to making some of these formation, Ilyes says they may have just been trying to get into the media spotlight and says you can’t explain the many other formations no one’s claimed responsibility for.

NOVEMBER 17, 2001 – I receive this reply

Greetings again, Aiych -

that Formation with article is of ’93Cheesefoot Head, in Hants UK …
400′ across, if i recollect rightly … got to fly it and visit on the
ground, too … Peter’s got lovely aerial of it, as well …

what a surprise to see that article!  it’s a recent one, sure’nuf,
judging by the date (wch is what REALLY confounds me!) but i was on
Evening Magazine (on KING5 TV/Seattle) well over A DECADE ago!  i’m
tickled that they’ve Webbed it!  :-)

thanks VERY much for sharing it, Aiych … i can EASILY understand yr
confusion — and MINE, too!  whooEEE!  out of left field!  well, into my
digital album with it!  :-)

muchly appreciated,

     - ilyes

yo:  if you’d like a calendar of the ’95 Formations, send me a snailmail
and i’ll be happy to get one off to you as a thankyou  :-)  (NOT YOU,
PeterLuv!  ;-)

——– Original Message ——–
From: Peter Sorensen

Odd that the article was dated last month when the WA formaiton
was in 1993 or 94, and the photo was not of the WA formation
either — it’s one from the UK, in 1994 or 95.
~~Peter

Well, let’s just say the news twists things around a bit doesn’t it ….. but why?

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